Skip to content

Congratulations Daniel & Emma!

On Friday, I had the immense pleasure of being part of Daniel and Emma’s wedding day which was my second of the year and I was very excited to getting going with it!

It all started early in the morning at Lancashire Manor Hotel and where I would spend all day documenting the special occasion. The Bridal preparations began with some natural shots of the girls having their hair & make-up done but was soon followed by photographing the smaller details including the wedding dress, wedding shoes, wedding flowers etc. I spent the usual couple of hours with them enjoying the fun before heading downstairs to prepare for the Ceremony.

Daniel had arrived with his Groomsmen to greet his guests as they started to arrive so I briefly showed my face and then went to see the Registrars, captured some shots of the Ceremony room and then headed back upstairs for a reveal photo between Bride and her Father.

We were moments away for the arrival of the Bridal party so I took my place at the front along with Barry of Diamond Lights Wedding Films. Emma looked stunning in her white wedding dress as she made her way down the aisle, smiling away with her Dad by her side. It all went smoothly and once the legalities were complete it was time for the signing of the register. As they made their way back up the aisle as Husband and Wife they had a little dance to their choice of music!

Both myself and Barry have worked with each other countless times over the years so we know how to work with each other in giving our couples the best experience possible. We arranged to get the formal group shots complete asap as we knew the weather was temperamental and could ruin our plans at any moment. We organised a photo of everyone followed by both families and then finally the smaller shots of Parents, Grandparents and Bridal party.

After a quick few snaps of the happy couple with their wedding transportation outside we headed inside to the Great Hall to get some room shots of it all decorated and ready for the wedding breakfast. Myself and Barry made the decision in getting a confetti photo and at least a couple of the more intimate shots of the newly weds together done before the meal mainly because we couldn’t call how the weather would be afterwards. I prefer to give my couple’s as much time as possible with their family & friends. I feel it has to be a fine balance in ensuring I get what I need for my couple’s but yet they have time to absorb the day with those who have traveled to celebrate with them 🙂

The afternoon included speeches, the meal, guests speeches for Barry and a few more photos of Daniel & Emma together before I headed inside to document guests enjoying themselves. Wedding days go so fast, even for myself and before we knew it we were heading towards the sounds of ABBA for the evening part of the day.

The DJ was set up and inviting guests back inside to have a dance. It was soon time for the First dance but before that Daniel and Emma sat down back-to-back for a game of Mr & Mrs. Now this can go either way as the game consists of questions about the couple of which they have to answer either using their own shoe or their other half’s….it’s fun to watch! 🙂

Thankfully there were no tears and we headed into the cutting of the cake and First dance. It was a truly incredible day around fantastic people and I hope the new Mr & Mrs Lacey enjoyed every moment!

Until they receive their wedding photos here’s a few sneak peek shots from the day, Enjoy!









An afternoon with Baker Hughes GE celebrating 60 years at Kirkby

I was asked to document employees having a relaxing and fun filled afternoon celebrating the amazing achievement of Baker Hughes GE, Kirkby site turning 60 years old. It was an absolute privilege being invited and I loved the fact that in the 1940’s the site was fundamentally ‘munitions’ for World War II. Later on in 1959 the first chemical delivery was dispatched and the rest is history…

Thanks for the help from Shaun – Magicman Shaun, Helen – Creation Events & Creation Balloons, Shawn – Party Caricatures.

John & Kath – 50th Wedding Anniversary

A couple of weeks ago I had the absolute pleasure in being part of John and Kath’s Wedding Anniversary celebrations. They wanted a professional Photographer to document the build up of guests arriving whilst capturing some room shots until speeches before the meal.

I received a call from John inviting me up to his home in Roby Mill where I sat down with him and his Wife and talked through my style and how the evening was to play out with regards to the photography. They were over the moon and immediately asked me to confirm the date in the diary, I was already excited!

So the evening was spent with myself documenting the entire evening with a couple of standard formals which included one of the happy couple together near their stunning cake and another with a selection of their immediate family.

I wasn’t there long and before I knew it I was packing up and heading back home after John said some words to his family and friends.

I wish them all the very best as they make their way towards the 60th celebrations!

Here’s some photos from the evening…


Congratulations Nathan & Naomi!

My first wedding of 2019 was on Saturday and it was certainly a Wintery one! Nathan and Naomi booked me before Christmas for a customised package which involved me being involved in their big day for a specific amount of time, they were very happy and seemed excited…

So the day arrived and I headed up to Holland Hall Hotel and arrived around 1.30pm. I got some venue shots before getting a couple of documented photos of the girls finishing off of the Bridal preparations. It was all systems go as 5 minutes before the ceremony was to begin I was heading downstairs to take my spot at the front of the aisle and next to Nathan and his Best man.

The music started and the Paige boys began proceedings followed by the Flower girls, Bridesmaids and finally the beautiful Bride and her Father who smiled away as they walked past their family and friends. The ceremony ran smoothly and included some lovely vows from the couple to one another. After rings were exchanged and the signing of the register was complete they were making their way back up the aisle as Husband and Wife.

I knew we were pushed for time and so I began what was to be a record time of completing the formal group photos and the more intimate shots of the couple together…it took 25 minutes although we couldn’t stay for too long outside as it was approx 2 above freezing. The newlyweds headed inside to warm up, have a drink and a little food before they were being escorted to the reception room where they were to have their Hog Roast/Wedding breakfast.

This gave me the opportunity to get those all-important room shots and the ‘mock’ cutting of the cake photo!

The staff held back Nathan and Naomi and invited the entire wedding party to take their seats. The new Mr & Mrs Tomlinson were then officially announced into the room as they appeared from behind the curtain. They cracked on with the speeches before they all tucked into their food which involved Naomi’s Father saying a few words. He was then followed by Naomi’s Mum who offered a great Poem. Nathan expressed his gratitude for family and friends celebrating his and Bride’s special day before his Best man completed the formalities.

It wasn’t over however as Martin the wedding coordinator entertained everyone with a few swing songs but the real surprise of the day was when Naomi’s Father and Step Dad stepped up to the Mic and showed off what they could do with a few songs themselves.#

It was a great day and I wish the happy couple all the very best in their married lives together.










Congratulations Daniel & Laura!

I may as well pitched up overnight at Macdonald Kilhey Court Hotel on Thursday as I was up early the following day after Tony and Liz’s wedding to begin photographing the wedding day of Daniel and Laura. I arrived very early as I was to document the build up with the girls for the Bridal Preparations.

As I arrived I was greeted by the Bride herself, Laura, as she opened the door to the suite they were all in eating breakfast. It helped with having everyone in one room and with all of the smaller details which I was to photograph throughout the morning. I organised with them that I would document a short period of Daniel getting ready as him and the Groomsmen were also prepping themselves in the hotel. I don’t spend too long with the gents as I usually see them around 20-30 minutes before the ceremony begins anyway which gives me a good opportunity to capture shots of guest arriving, briefly speak with the Registrars and the surrounding area of the venue.

The time was getting ever so close to the start of the Ceremony and so once I photographed the wedding dress in one of the Bridesmaid’s room I made my way down to the Lakeside suite to set myself up. I came across a familiar face who I do enjoy working with, Barry of Diamond Lights Wedding Films. He was filming at the entrance as I arrived but we were soon catching up although after 5 minutes guests were being invited into the room as a brass band was playing.

Daniel and his 3 Best men were waiting patiently as the girls slowly made their way from their suite, down the staircase and finally entering the Lakeside before Laura ran through legalities with the Registrars. A little later than scheduled the Bridesmaids entered one-by-one to the instrumental of ‘Braveheart’ and then finally a beautiful Bride with her Father walking together and smiling away down the aisle. It all ran smoothly and after a short time I was soon photographing the signing of the register and getting ready to receive the new Mr & Mrs Hyland back down the aisle and heading for a celebratory drink as Husband and Wife.

Both myself and Barry knew we had to get both the formal groups and the intimate shots of the couple complete before darkness arrived. We managed to get through 10 groups, around 20 minutes of couple’s shots and even a confetti photo before it started to become too difficult to do any outdoor photographs. We also captured the room all set up in its stunning glory whilst guest enjoyed chatting and drinking next door.

The afternoon comprised of speeches by Laura’s Dad, Daniel and finally his 3 Wise men (Best men). It was followed by the wedding breakfast which I always take the opportunity to look through everything I have to date and remove those files which won’t make the cut!

Once bellies were full it was the queue for Pier Fun Casinos to enter the room and introduce themselves to a smiley Bride but very surprised Groom. Laura booked the entertainment giants a couple of years ago as a lovely surprise for her hubby for when they were to tie-the-knot. He loved it that much that he never moved from one of the tables as he was having so much fun, and even bagged himself a bottle of bubbly!

Eventually it was time for Pier Fun Casinos to leave at which point gave us the perfect time to head off and finish those more intimate photos of the happy couple together. We used the reception area as it’s lit well and includes gorgeous backdrops including the staircase. They were easy to photograph throughout, laughing a lot which provided me with beautiful photos of them.

The evening arrived and once the room had filled up and the DJ finally got ‘Dolly Parton’ on we were ready for the newlyweds to cut their wedding cake and head onto the dance floor for their First dance as a married couple. It was fab and being huge Killers fans (like myself) they asked for a couple of tracks to follow! They were dancing whilst my foot was tapping away capturing the moment but as always I soon was packing up and saying goodbye.

I had a blinding time and I’m sure Daniel and Laura did too. I wish them all the best in their married lives together and I look forward to editing their wedding photographs. For now please enjoy looking through these sneak peek shots…









Congratulations Tony & Liz!

So my penultimate wedding of 2018 saw me up at Macdonald Kilhey Court Hotel in Standish, Wigan. I was to document the wedding ceremony of Tony and Liz and after charging batteries and packing the car I was heading up the road to begin the afternoon’s proceedings.

Their family and friends were travelling from across the country to be part of their big day and once I arrived I started to document the build-up. At the entrance sat the vehicle which brought Tony, Best man and 2 Ushers from their home…it was only the Trotter’s Reliant Robin! Liz surprised her Husband-to-be as he is a massive ‘Only fools and Horses’ fan although I can only imagine with Tony being a big lad that it may have been a bit of a squeeze, well at least they all arrived on time!

Everyone headed down to the Lakeside suite but I stayed waiting for Liz to walk down the stunning staircase in the reception area as requested. Liz, her Bridesmaids, Flower girl and Father slowly made their way down towards the ceremony room. Tony was waiting along with family and friends who were watching on and before we knew it the Bridal party were walking down the aisle.

The ceremony was lovely and once rings were exchanged and the register had been signed they were walking back up the aisle as Husband and Wife. This time of year proves challenging with ensuring that I fit in everything before the wedding breakfast due to daylight and so once their wedding guests congratulated them we began the formalities. First up was the group photographs, this was followed by the more intimate shots of the happy couple and then after interest had be shown towards doing a confetti shot all guests were making their way outside. I set up everyone on the steps and with just enough light to create this moment I did a countdown and those with confetti let rip!

I managed to get some photos of the room all dressed up whilst Mason King did some stand up Magic and before the wedding breakfast was to begin. Tony and Liz organised a duo of wedding singers from ‘Ntertain’ to entertain everyone after the desserts had been served and they didn’t disappoint with most getting involved.

The evening arrived and Karen from ‘Pier fun Casinos’ was on hand to invite those who were feeling lucky to have a go at a couple of games. This gave me the chance to finish up with the newlyweds and make sure that we got enough shots before the day concluded. They much preferred the more candid photography however that I offer as it captures people’s true emotions and so I concentrated more on this!

The evening was just starting but I knew I would be leaving the day’s celebrations in full swing after the little matter of a first dance to document. They started off dancing away together but were soon joined by their children and finally their family and friends.

The whole occasion was thoroughly enjoyable to photograph and I hope Tony and Liz had a wonderful and memorable time. I can’t wait to edit their entire wedding day’s photos but for now I leave you with these sneak peek shots…enjoy,








Noah’s Cake Smash with Luna-bear!

So earlier this week I was invited to photograph Noah for his first Cake Smash photo shoot…this was also my first experience of this popular type of portraiture so I was very much looking forward to it!

I was in contact with Rhiannon (Noah’s Mum) on the lead up to the day with advice on what would look good as part of the backdrop. She decided to get a variety of props which involved balloons, pom-poms, bunting and of course the cake itself. We arranged to do a few shots of Noah with his ‘furry’ Sister, Luna. Now Luna has been a subject of mine in a previous shoot when she was a pup. She is absolutely gorgeous and I always love capturing shots of pets as part of my work especially as I am a lover of all our fluffy companions…and let’s face it, they are family!

Time was taken to make sure it all looked good but once checks were complete we had got into it and with the help of Rhiannon and David (Noah’s Dad) we had an enjoyable morning 🙂

I treat my photo sessions just like I would during a wedding. I am there to document the occasion but just with slight adjustments when needed to help make the shot look that bit extra special. I also throw a LOT of patience into the mix as this is what will make the experience a happy one for not just me but those I’m photographing too.

I can’t wait to edit the rest of the morning’s photo session but for now please enjoy these two chosen ‘sneak peek’ shots!





Congratulations Philip & Clare!

On Saturday I was back at it again and it was the same stunning venue I was at the week before…Ashfield House, YES! This time it was the wedding day of Philip and Clare who I had met up with a little while ago to discuss their big day in great detail. It’s crazy how fast these occasions creep up on you 🙂

So Saturday arrived and at 10am I made the grueling 2.8 mile journey up to begin the day by documenting the Bridal Preparations. Clare and the Bridal party were enjoying the morning having their hair and make-up done in the sitting room whilst indulging in some bacon butties, pancakes and of course a little fizz! I started with a couple of shots of it all happening but I swiftly headed outside to capture some shots of the gorgeous surroundings the venue has to offer. The colours are absolutely wonderful at this time of year and we’re lucky that we haven’t had any severe storms to blow all the leaves out of the trees, it does make for lovely backdrops! After 10 minutes I headed back upstairs to document the reminder of the morning whilst getting those all important photos of the smaller details including the wedding shoes, wedding flowers, wedding jewelry, wedding dress etc. As usual around 30 minutes before the ceremony was to begin I headed downstairs to meet up with the Groom and to make sure their wasn’t any specific requests from the Registrar.

I photographed guests having a drink and make those last minute adjustments before Josh, the wedding coordinator for the day invited everyone to head inside the ceremony room and take their seats to await the arrival of the Bride. Clare’s Dad waited for his Daughter at the bottom of the staircase so he could see her for the first time in her beautiful wedding dress, it was a lovely moment!

The Paige boys and Flower girls started proceedings by making their way into the ceremony room. They were followed by the Bridesmaids and finally Clare next to her proud Dad who was smiling away to family and friends. They made their way towards an anxious Groom although nerves had seemed to have lessened once Clare was stood next to Philip. Vows and rings were exchanged along with a kiss to ‘seal-the-deal’ and after 20 minutes the signing of the register was complete and they were already making their way back down the aisle although this time as Husband and Wife.

We moved straight into the confetti photo and formal groups as I had previously looked on the weather report for the area which was very mixed and unpredictable. I wanted to get what we could outside just in case it took a turn for the worst but fortunately it held off. We even managed to get those more intimate shots of the newly weds together before they remained inside for the afternoon and daylight slowly diminished.

Everyone looked like they were having a blast especially with Magic Matt keeping everyone entertained. He provided amazing showpieces and had everyone in stitches as he performed out of his skin. After an hour or so it was time for all of the wedding party to take their seats in the wedding breakfast room ready to receive their Bride and Groom. Josh formerly announced the happy couple into the room which was followed by loud cheers and clapping. The speeches were first and to begin the formalities of the afternoon was Clare’s Dad who offered loving words towards his Daughter and wonderful words towards most in the room. Next up was Philip who did his duty as the Groom and thanked those in attendance for sharing his and his Wife’s special day. Finally was Philip’s Best man who done a great job in sharing funny stories 🙂

The evening was upon us and with guest heading out of the room for the staff to turn it all around for the evening it was the perfect opportunity to grab hold of Philip and Clare and complete the photos of them both although we were to do this inside the venue but the interior decor is unique and provides wonderful backdrops for me to use. I only kept them for around 20 minutes as I always want to ensure they have plenty of time with their guests and not with their photographer 🙂

I stumbled across Matt who was the DJ for the evening and provided by DFC Lancashire. He set up his equipment so quickly and before we knew it Philip and Clare were heading back in to officially cut their cake and on request, Clare was to dance with her Dad. After Father and Daughter shared a few wonderful moments together, Clare was handed over to her Husband to share the dance floor for the first time as Mr & Mrs Topping.

The day was so enjoyable capturing it all for such a lovely couple and helped by being surrounded by amazing and friendly guests. I hope everyone had a memorable day and I can’t wait to begin the editing of their wedding photographs. For the time being I have chosen and edited a small selection of my favourites, Enjoy!










Congratulations Andrew & Aimee!

On Saturday I was super excited to be heading up to Ashfield House again which is just up the road from me in Standish, Wigan to document Andrew & Aimee’s big day! After a short absence from this hidden gem I was excited to see any changes which has made this national award winning venue what it has become.

It all began at around 10am where I arrived to capture the Bridal preparations. Aimee and her Bridal party were having their hair and make-up done when I arrived to which I swiftly got out the camera and started documenting the action. After 10 minutes I walked around the venue both inside and out to get inspiration for potential shots later in the day. It was a glorious frosty but sunny Autumnal day but I knew the weather was going to be a factor with both the formal groups and the more intimate shots of the happy couple together. Experience has always told me to get everything in before the wedding breakfast as daylight diminishes very quickly leaving no option but for shots indoors! After 10 minutes of getting what I needed I headed back up to the ‘sitting room’ where I began photographing the smaller details but waiting for the dress shots until there was a little more room later on.

At 12pm Andy arrived and was to get ready with his Best man and Usher in a room down the corridor. As he was seconds away I asked Aimee if maybe he wanted some ‘getting ready’ shots before he headed downstairs to which she replies yes! I only spent 10/15 minutes with them as, let’s face it…us men only have a few things to organise and put on ;-P

The morning soon became afternoon and with around 15/20 minutes before the ceremony was to begin I headed downstairs to capture shots of guests arriving and Aimee’s arrival walking down the venue’s iconic staircase with her Dad by her side. The ceremony began on time and it included a couple of readings and personal vows to one another. A special guest was also in attendance which made the atmosphere that little more ‘smiley’ among guests because Andrew & Aimee’s pet dog, Rupert was observing the special occasion from the comfort of his own seat (well it was someone’s lap).

After rings were exchanged and the signing of the register was complete the new Mr & Mrs Donaldson were ready to head back up the aisle as Husband and Wife. They smiled away to their family and friends before being handed a glass of fizz by Josh the wedding coordinator. We swiftly cracked on with the confetti shot which led into a large group shot of everyone with myself on the balcony looking down to a fine looking bunch of people 🙂 We then finished with the smaller requested formal groups.

Even though we completed the groups in record time I still needed the happy couple for their photographs before we lost the daylight. We were ahead of schedule however so I gave them 10 minutes to warm up inside with their wedding guests before inviting them back outside along with Rupert. They were amazing in front of the camera and I tried as always to keep it as relaxed as possible as I believe this is the best way to get those awesome natural looking shots! We walked around the venue’s stunning grounds and after 20 minutes we headed back inside where I had the opportunity to get those room shots before everyone headed inside for the meal and trashed the place 🙂

Andrew and Aimee waited outside the room with the Bridal party as they requested a receiving line to ensure they said hello to everyone who was in attendance witnessing the happy occasion. It also gave those who didn’t know each other the opportunity to introduce themselves before the speeches later that afternoon. With everyone ready sat down, Josh was announcing the newly weds into the room.

After I had time to look through my photos it was soon time for the penultimate formality of the day, the speeches. Aimee’s Dad began with some lovely words towards his Daughter, this was then followed by Andrew who offered gifts to those who made a special contribution to the day and plenty of ‘thank yous’ to everyone for being part of their big day. Finally the Best man stepped up and came up with a cracking speech which involved an array of head wear. This was obviously a personal story which had laughter in abundance and by the end got a huge applaud!

So the day was nearly over for me but after an hour or so of capturing guests enjoying themselves and a sneak shot of Andrew in a kilt ;-P I set up my flash guns ready for the first dance. I was in the presence of one of the best DJ’s I had met to date, Ian who was the DJ of choice for the evening created a wonderful atmosphere and included some cracking songs to ensure bodies were on the dance floor throughout the evening.

Andrew and Aimee enjoyed their moment together dancing away surrounded by watchful eyes. It was lovely and the song was slow but it was afterwards where it got interesting as they essentially has a dance-off to ‘The O’Jays – Love Train’. It was epic and I loved capturing their expressions to a song which I thought was never going to end, haha!

I hope they both had such a wonderful day together surrounded by those who love them. It was an absolute pleasure being part of it and I wish you all the best in your married life together. Your wedding day photos will be edited soon but for now please enjoy these sneak peek shots 🙂












Congratulations Daniel & Sophie!

On Saturday I was part of Daniel and Sophie’s big day which saw me at a new venue. My batteries were charged and bags packed ready for a day which was going to amazing! I arrived at Ribby Hall in Preston where I made my way through the gates and to the far end of the complex where the Spa was located. Sophie and the Bridal party were having their hair and make-up done upstairs in a room which overlooked the stunning grounds. I began capturing all the smaller details although as the wedding dress was arriving a little later I waited patiently for its arrival. I documented the remainder of the time with two Bridesmaids turning up as the morning turned to afternoon. Sophie was very relaxed and taking it all in including indulging in a couple of glasses of fizz! It was great fun and I really enjoyed capturing it all but it was soon time for me to head down to the main building which was where the ceremony was taking place.

As I walked through the sliding doors I was greeted by Daniel’s Best man and Brother, Michael who directed me to the main man himself. Daniel also seemed very relaxed as he greeted family and friends who braved the rain and blustery winds to witness these lovely people tie-the-knot. I briefly spoke with the registrars and got a couple of snaps of the room set up before guests were then invited to take their seats by the wedding coordinator, Natalie. Once the Bridal party arrived I knew I had to head outside to get some shots of Sophie making her way down with her Father in a very swish classic Rolls Royce, I got a little wet but it was so worth it having the spa in the background. With everyone ready and Daniel eagerly waiting at the end of the aisle it was time for the main event.

I took position as the girls began to make their way down the aisle before Sophie smiled away with her proud Father as they walked past family and friends. The ceremony was lovely which included a reading made by Daniel’s Mum before exchange of vows and rings. The signing of the register was the first formality of the day which I organised before handing over to everyone else to get their photos. The newly weds then made their way back up the aisle as Husband and Wife to receive a refreshing beverage and allow their wedding guests to congratulate them. As the weather wasn’t too good and very unpredictable I didn’t risk conducting the formal group photographs outside as it would have taken too long potentially waiting for breaks from the rain. Instead I picked a location with plenty of room for the requested groups I had on paper and had the Ushers help me get hold of those involved. We didn’t have too much time but we got through them within around 20 minutes which then gave us maybe 10 minutes before the happy couple checked the room which had been dressed for the wedding breakfast and even a couple of snaps of them outside with the Rolls Royce and in the gardens out the back.

I was so, so happy for Daniel and Sophie that they managed to have some photos outside especially as we would have lost the daylight after the meal which is something we always have to think about among many other things on a wedding day!

Natalie invited everyone to take their seats before officially announcing the new Mr & Mrs Yates into the room to cheers and howls. They began with the speeches which started with Sophie’s Father, Robert. He was followed by the Daniel who offered kind words and expressed his Thanks to those who attended their special day and finally Michael the Best man was to finish things off with some funny stories. Things had settled and everyone was enjoying a lovely carvery before an announcement by what looked like one of the staff members of the venue. It didn’t go down too well when he said the incorrect name for the Groom although this was then swiftly followed by showing his true identity in being a ‘singing waiter’. These guys are great because they create an eye watering story and make you believe they are causing a scene before belting out some tunes which usually gets everybody in the room on their feet and dancing. It is always an awesome time for me to get those all important documentary shots which I love capturing as I can blend well into the background and catch people off guard! 🙂

The entertainment soon came to an end and everyone was asked to head back into the reception area where evening guests had already been waiting. The evening had arrived sooner than expected but this is what happens when you’re having a ball! I had about 10/15 minutes with Daniel and Sophie capturing photos of them together around the inside of the venue using certain backdrops before they were heading onto the dance floor for their first dance. I asked Michael to secretly set off a confetti canon during the first dance which didn’t go according to plan especially with it being a canon I thought it would go further, haha…

It was a lovely moment for the happy couple as they danced away in front of their family and friends before the DJ invited everyone up to also join the newly weds. It was a really enjoyable day and one which was great fun. I hope Daniel, Sophie and their wonderful family and friends had a memorable time and I wish them all the best in their married lives together. I also hope they have an awesome time away on honeymoon, it sounds amazing!

Enjoy these sneak peek shots, thanks…








1 2 12